It seems that your Tableau Server may not be set up properly. It has to be on a network, on a PC/SERVER with port 80 open and no other server type software running (like IIS or similar web server). It has to setup with users and passwords, Sites have to be setup and users added to Sites as appropriate. Make sure the Windows Firewall on your Tableau Server has been setup properly to allow Tableau Server to use port 80 and make sure there is no anti-virus software running that will scan Tableau directories (cannot run AV against Tableau Server - use a manual scan when server is down for backups).
It sure looks like an issue with networking. Try troubleshooting by publishing from Tableau Desktop directly installed on the server. That will eliminate any network issues. If that works, then it is a firewall conflict.
I hope that helps.