Based on my understanding, you want to use an Online/Server published Data-source to build a Tableau report, self-serve option for you and your team. Yes, it is possible to do that!
Once the data steward designs a data connection it can be published as an extract or a live connection to the Server. Team View/Edit/Create access can be controlled using Server Permissions by the Server/Site Admin
If you like what you see here, let me know and we can point you to the materials Tableau has published on this topic!