I don't know of an automatic translation type function, no. You could probably accomplish this with using 'Create Join Calculation' found at the bottom of the join view:
Then a CASE calculation in the new dialog box that opens up, similar to the following screenshot. In this example, you'd use the German Field Name for Country from your Daten.csv.
You'll (unfortunately) need to spell it out for each country. But, once it's done, it's done:
You'd join this to the English named-field thereafter in your Income.csv. Best, Don
thank you for helping.
Your solution is more or less exactly what I am currently doing with my workaround table "Ländernamen" - it is a list of countries with the names in English and German.
However, Tableau understands German and English country names itself without the need of translation, so it should be able to solve this problem without using a translation table / Translation join calculation ...