If you are able to hit the Odata source from the server, then I believe this should work fine. Are you able to run a desktop instance from this same pc and connect? This sounds like a setup issue for the published odata connection. Also note that the data type must be extract for odata - not a live connection - OData - Tableau
Have you made any progress or is this an ongoing issue? Please open a ticket with support if this continues as they can help track down the issue.