I would create a view in SQL and point Tableau at that. I can't think of anything on the Tableau side that would do something more efficiently than that.
Ah, if only I could! I have read-only access to the database and cannot create any new views.
Hmmmm .... because you are using an extract you could use Custom SQL. I usually don't recommend it, but because you're extracting and don't have enough priv's in the database to create a view then Custom SQL would work. Getting a DBA to create a view would be preferable though.
If you r/click and drag the date field onto your viz you can select relevant date and anchor this to the latest date - thus your viz will update as the underlying data changes over time.
Another alternative is to use a similar technique but using run control id or snapshot it if you have it in your data.