First welcome to Tableau and the forum
Filtering excludes values from the data - sets will group the data into In and out of the set
At the recent tableau conference there was an excellent presentation that speaks to your problem
see the link https://tc18.tableau.com/learn/sessions/32200
there are to added links -at that site - one to a you tube replay of the session and the other to a workbook the video is about 1 hour but it will take you through step by step on how to create sets and use Set - Actions (introduced in 2018.3) that are the key to doing what you want
enjoy the video she is very good
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You can accomplish this using parameters. Create two parameters - they'll each be a list of your measure names. One will be used as the y axis (x axis is already the year in your case) and one will be used on the color mark.
For your y axis, create a calculated field that is something like:
case [parameter 1]
when "Experience" then [Experience]
when "Proportion of students exposed to novice teachers" then [Proportion of students exposed to novice teachers]
....... (add all your other values as separate lines here)
You would then create a second calculated field exactly like the first for your color mark.
Drop the y-axis value onto rows, the year onto columns, and your color mark calculation onto the color mark. When the user selects values from the parameters it will change what is shown on the x-axis, and the color mark calculation will break out the lines accordingly.
Here's more information on parameters as well: