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User filters are convenient but have to be maintained in the workbook and re-published if your data or users change. Good for prototyping, not as good for production.
ISMEMBEROF() allows management on Tableau Server using groups linked to a field in your data, no re-publishing required.
You may be able to achieve Column Level Security by using a published data source that hides the original column and exposes a value that is conditional on ISMEMBEROF().