Interestingly, I'm seeing the opposite--it doesn't work right on Chrome, but looks fine on Edge. For me, on Chrome, the viz ends up looking wider than Desktop, while Edge looks the same. I made a copy and deleted the device layouts and now it looks the same on both, so my suspicion is that you may have found some sort of bug with Device Designer. I'd recommend contacting the Tableau Public team: Contact Us | Tableau Public
The issue seems to heave resolved itself right after I posted this - however, since you mentioned still having the issues I looked at my mobile & tablet layouts and noticed they have the sheets removed. I've placed the sheets on all layouts and hopefully that fixes it.
I think others are seeing strange behavior in Public too:
For that dashboard, it also initially appears correct on loading, but then refreshed to an incorrect form.