Does your Tableau Server has the access permission to the OneDrive?
In order I'd check the following;
1. Corporate firewall - sometimes overzealous IT departments just chuck up a global block for giggles or some other nefarious reason
2. Database permissions - same reason as above - check the user account still has valid permissions on the database
3. Onedrive account details if it wasn't the firewall, has somebody changed the password ?
Yes, other extracts are refreshing using the same OneDrive account. Also, to troubleshoot, I replaced the OneDrive table with an Excel file, and the extract struggled to refresh with that.