Right click YEAR (Year) on Columns shelf and change 'Continuous' to 'Discrete'.
When it's continuous, Tableau treat the figures on continuous line to show the flow (trend), which is why this happens.
Also this will help to understand 'discrete' and 'continuous'. Tableau Fundamentals: Discrete vs. Continuous | Evolytics
thanks a lot for your response! I changed to discrete, but then the distances between 2005, 2012, and 2016 are equal. Is there no way of selecting which years should be displayed on the x-axes? Or manually deleting axis-points?
I'm afraid I have misunderstood your question.
1. Adjustment of the axis
Please find attached workbook.
I used DAY (Year) in the column shelf, and edited X axis to start from 1st day of the year and set interval as 1 year.
(also changed Tooltip to show Year, instead of date, otherwise tooltip reads what you have on the axis)
2. Remove label of year which missing data
I believe your second question should be that you want to keep the interval between the years with data, but hide the year label (2006, 2007 etc.) which does not have data.
Unfortunately I don't have an answer to that with keeping the axis shown.
Instead, I've put Year shown above the chart as attached Q2 sheet.
To do this, chart type changed to line chart w/ points.
Book3R.twbx 21.8 KB