You may have already done this, but might be worth double checking. When you publish the workbook, are you embedding the credentials?
If you are using the server run-as account to connect to the database (as opposed to username/password), it may be possible that the account has permissions to read from the tables, but not to execute stored procedures.
Hope this helps!
There is a post probably related to the issue mentioned by you --->Extract keeps failing - created with cross-join
I noticed couple of points as below ...
I contacted Tableau at the end and it turned out it was a driver bug issue with the Impala and we had to reboot our Tableau Server. Might be worth also for you to contact them. I had to send them the logs when i run the extract.
I was able to solve the above problem by editing passwords of data sources using 'connections' option on server.
Thanks katarina Day for your reply.
That looks good. Given you can successfully refresh tables, I doubt there is a problem in the general connectivity between Tableau and your data source. Can you double check that you can refresh extracts for anything but stored procedures? What data source are you using?
One troubleshooting step I'd try is to set a live connection instead of an extract and try both by prompting and embedding the password. This would make sure you can actually use the stored procedure.
It might be a good idea to start filing a support case as well: Support Case | Tableau Software. There are probably going to be more details about the error on the Tableau Server log files, but to get there you'll need to work with your Tableau Server administrator and Tableau support.