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Not an easy to find doc, but quite useful: https://www.tableau.com/sites/default/files/whitepapers/742817_entit_tableau_server_ms_azure_whitepaper.pdf
Things are fast changing, so this may not all still be accurate:
Marketplace (PaaS) offering is single node and you can use your own license to enable it. In PaaS you typically selectively sync your AD groups to Azure AD (AAD), but Tableau doesnt support that as far as I know so you might need your own AD replica.
If you have IaaS server that you install Tableau on, it'll look and feel just like an on-prem server.