You could try doing a dual axis map with the first map containing the shapefile, and the second map containing the lat/long coords.
I'm not confident that you will ultimately achieve what you are looking for without going through the manual process of entering the land use type though. 80% of your tableau work is usually data preparation.
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In Tableau 2018.2 (coming soon!) there is a spatial intersection join type. You will be able to combine point spatial files with polygon spatial files to identify which polygon each point falls inside. Extend and expand your dashboard capabilities with new features—now in beta | Tableau Software
You would need to convert your Excel sheet lat/lon locations into a spatial file type, but it would be easy to do that with QGIS, or you could probably just write out the syntax for a KML file with a calculated field in your Excel sheet and then copy/paste that data into a text file with a kml extension. KML Reference | Keyhole Markup Language | Google Developers