You can achieve this by using dual axis.
The points are,
1. Use an image with transparent background.
2. Create a background (eg. mark type: square) and mark it with color.
3. User dual axis to combine them.
A sample workbook using Superstore sample data, is attached for your reference.
In this sample, color changes according to SUM(Sales).
So please uncheck some categories from the [Sub-Category] filter, and you would see the change.
Dual Axis.twbx 2.4 MB