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Currently the "Use Separate Legends" feature only creates separate legends for different measure values, and are only based off the measure value itself rather than another calculation.
The Tableau website has an Ideas section where customers can add, comment, and vote on features they would like to see in the product. Votes are used to help prioritize new features. Our Development team also loves to see everyone's use cases in the comments, which helps them better design features that will meet the most possible needs.
You should check out https://community.tableau.com/ideas/1071
I cannot think of another solution that would not involve creating a calculated field for each column in the view. You might look at Conditionally Color the Text in a Crosstab | Tableau Software and Conditionally Formatting Cell Background Color | Tableau Software
If you could explain why you are unable to make calculated fields to isolate each category, we may be able to give you another workaround.
Hope this helps!