Depending on weather you want the output to be automatic or manual, this can be done pretty easily.
First, you will create 2 parameters.
The first, I will call Date Type. Here you can set some pre-defined periods. So I will put 3 options.
The second parameter will be a date parameter, you can name it whatever you would like.
Next you will need to create a calculated field to give you the reference date, the calculation is as follows [Reference Date]
if [Date Type] = 'Current Month' then datetrunc('month',Today())
elseif [Date Type] = 'Previous Month' then dateadd('month',-1,datetrunc('month',Today()))
else datetrunc('month',[Date Parameter])
The next calculated field will be for our filter. [Date Filter]
if [Reference Date] = datetrunc('month',[Data Date]) then 'T'
elseif dateadd('month',-1,[Reference Date]) = datetrunc('month',[Data Date]) then 'T'
elseif dateadd('year',-1,[Reference Date]) = datetrunc('month',[Data Date]) then 'T'
Then apply the [Date Filter] and accept 'T' to get these. You can also create 3 separate calculated fields that instead of 'T', you put the period name for your month,month-1 and month previous year headings.
I have added a file with the calcs and applied the filter.