Yes you can, simply create separate values for each time period using calculated fields and bring each of these out on the columns shelf.
In Pseudocode (upload a sample because I'm just writing this on the fly);
if [year] = "2007" then sum([value])
if [year] = "2008" then sum([value])
if datepart('year',[year],'2008','monday') then sum([value])
Thank you for your answer.
I was wondering if there was another way to do this because that would mean creating 3 calculations for all values that need to be displayed by period and moreover I am not sure I could create a view with "period " as columns and values as line (as in the screenshot)
Unfortunately not that I'm aware - the problem here as I see it is you want different results in different columns so you have to tell Tableau what to put in each column separately.