I recommend asking this question in the Altyerx community since this question seems directly related to that product. The folks in the community are very helpful as well.
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Alteryx & Tableau published data source user here. This particular use case is not presently supported by the existing Alteryx Output tool nor the Publish to Tableau Server tool. I've been thinking about how to deal with this for awhile and have a plan, here it is:
1) Maintain various shapefiles (we do dual-axis maps with different shapes).
2) Maintain a local .tds (Tableau data source) file that points to a .hyper file that is generated by the following process:
3) The core data for comes from a CSV file that an Alteryx workflow writes to.
4) Then after completing an update to the .csv write Alteryx will kick off a script or series of scripts that...
a) uses the Tableau extract API to generate the .hyper file from the CSV file & shapefiles.
b) (possible) zips everything into a .tdsx (based on the docs this seems to be necessary for the REST API in the next step).
c) uses either the Tableau REST API or tabcmd to publish the data source. I keep hearing rumors that tabcmd will be deprecated in a future release so I'll probably take apart Alteryx's Publish to Server tool and re-use some code there.
This way we will get a published data source that includes calcs that we can update the data from an Alteryx workflow. Updates to the metadata (calculated fields, aliases, folders, default colors, etc.) will be done via edits to the local (master) .tds rather than by downloading & editing the published data source.
This process is a little more complicated and using the Tableau extract API to create the .hyper file instead of an Alteryx Output tool because we regularly have Tableau data sources with multiple spatial objects (i.e. multiple spatial columns) however Alteryx's output tool doesn't support spatial objects in .tde nor .hyper nor does it support having multiple spatial objects in a single output. And the Tableau refreshextract tool can't be used here because it's never been updated to handle multiple data sources.
So we won't be using an Alteryx Output tool to a .hyper file and we won't be using a the Alteryx Publish to Server tool. I'm hoping to put this all together into a tool I can publicly share but that project keeps on getting pushed back due to other priorities.