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This reply will be a starting point. Not sure if you may have already seen this OnlineHelp page:
which has the following section:
Differences between Windows and Linux
Review the differences between Tableau Server on Windows and on Linux so you are aware of them and can investigate in your test environment.
- If you are migrating from a version of Server on Windows prior to 10.5, approach the migration like an upgrade and familiarize yourself with any changes between your existing version and 10.5 by reading What's Changed in the Server on Windows help
- Any custom fonts you use may need to be installed on your Linux computer, and may render differently there than on Windows.
- Connection options for Linux are a subset of those available for Tableau Server on Windows. Review the connection types that are available and make sure the ones you need are supported.
- TSM replaces tabadmin. Understand the TSM commands and how they compare to older tabadmin commands. For a list of tabadmin commands and their TSM equivalents, see Migrate from Tabadmin to the TSM CLI.
It should be noted that the goal is to close the difference gaps between the two OS platforms. For example, for the Linux version of Tableau Server there's no longer a "Backup Primary", you can move the licensing service to any node within the cluster since it's no longer tied to the Primary. That same functionality is expected to happen for Windows this year.
Actually came across this blog post by one of Tableau's partners, Interworks and it really summarizes everything well
Tableau Server on Linux is Here. Should You Make the Switch?