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The backup will contain all the data for the workbooks, data sources, projects and sites on the Tableau Server. An easier way to answer this will be to actually discuss what is not kept during the back up process.
When Tableau Server is backed up the logs folder is not kept. Our team suggests zipping the log folders prior to running the tabadmin backup command for the Tableau Server. This will zip up the logs folder and allow for it to be saved. That way a log record will be kept.
In our documentation on scripting the step is included as the first step for the backup process: Back Up Tableau Server Data
Additionally the Http_requests will also be dumped when the Tableau Server is backed up. But these same requests can be found in the HTTPD logs that are zipped into the Logs folder from the Tableau Server.
Hope this helps!