You should be able to download the workbooks from Tableau Public to see how your two specific examples were built. And here are a few other resources for how to mix text and graphs in one worksheet:
I'm not aware of a one-size-fits-all name for these types of visualizations but they seem to be commonly used to have some sort of indicator shape or trend line along with KPIs (or BANs, if you prefer that term ).
Thank you very much Jen, i will look in to that now and see what i can create.
Unfortunately, we are not on the latest version of Tableau yet and the workbooks are not compatible .