I don't know of a way to distinguish Desktop connections from Server connections, but the info on all connections to data sources is in the historical_events table. The event name is "Connect to Data Source". You can save yourself some time by using the TS Events data source that I build for this purpose, here:
You might be able to isolate that traffic down to what are probable Desktop connections by eliminating accesses where an "Access View" event happened right around the same time by the same user, because you are almost always loading a viz when you access a data source from Tableau Server without Desktop (the exception being Web Edit).
I feel like there was a way to detect Desktop connections to data sources using the http_requests table, but as I test things now, I can't seem to find a way to identify them.
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I asked the same question sometime ago Identify whether a user is accessing a data source through Desktop rather than Server and got a reply from Russell Christopher. It's not something I'm actively tracking anymore and may well have changed... but might help
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Thanks Donna, that's what I was thinking of! But, when I use that data to look at all Desktop connections to Server over the past three days, I can see who connected, and when, but not to what. There doesn't seem to be any info in the http_request_uri, or any other field, that would tell me what they were doing. I get a lot of /trusted requests, but they're all generic. So I'm wondering, like you, if something has changed since Russel posted that.