At first glance, it seems that your workbook is somehow still referencing the extract on your local machine ... thus the db icon and not the tableau icon next to the data source. Try loading a new data source from the server and grab the one you 'just' published and see if the icon changes to the tableau icon. If this works, then you should just be able to 'replace' the data sources.
The published data source should automatically replace the local extract in your workbook, unless you are unchecking the box in step 4 in this page:
If you are keeping this box checked, and your data source is not automatically updating to use the published version - please open a case with Tableau Technical Support so they can look into the issue further.