I will move this to the Server Administration area of the Forums for better visibility.
Could you provide a few additional pieces of information?
1- what version of Tableau Server is in use?
2 - what is the data source? You mentioned it was a Tableau Server published data source but what is that data source attached to?
3 - Are you the administrator for the Server?
4 - Is the published data source live or extract?
Extract Refresh Schedules is good first place to start with checking the setup.
Have you created a ticket with Tableau Support as this sounds like something impacting day to day functionality that may best be addressed with a support team member reviewing in person.
Thanks for moving it for me. We are working with our team at Tableau on this as well. Here are some answers.
1. Server is Tableau 10.1
2. Data source is an Extract from a SQL Server but it is a live connection to a Workbook.
4. The Published Data Source is an Extract on the Server but Live to the Workbook. The Extract is easy to refresh- but it is the Live Connection in the Workbook that won't update.
I believe it really is a Server Cache issue and we need to figure out how to clear the server Cache when the Extract is updated. I think that will solve it, but unless I can figure that out- it is not going to work.