Let me know if I've miss understood the problem, but it looks like it's just the type of aggregation your using that isn't working properly.
For the 9 that you're showing as correct, you're taking the distinct count of Client ID, but for the "*2017 # surveyed" calculation you're taking a strict row count. To fix this you'll just need to make a small change to your "*2017 # surveyed" calc where you replace the 1 or 0 option with the Client ID. It would look like this:
IF [*2017 Prioritized participation status] = "1. Surveyed" THEN [Client ID] END
Just take the COUNTD of this calculation to get the correct result. You could also pre-aggregate this equation to make it a little faster to make adjustment. Then it would just look like this:
COUNTD(IF [*2017 Prioritized participation status] = "1. Surveyed" THEN [Client ID] END)
Thanks so much Wesley, that totally worked. I think I got a little lost in the weeds and ignored the basics!
That happens to me all of the time!