When using testing the workbook in Tableau Desktop. Is the Tableau Desktop hosted on the same computer as the Tableau Server. I would be curious to see if Tableau Desktop can successfully refresh from the same computer as Tableau Server. Also is the data source published standalone or is it packaged with a workbook? Does the refresh behave differently publishing the data source alone or packaged with a workbook?
Another troubleshooting step would be to review the query being sent to the OData data source from Tableau Server when it is attempting the refresh.
Create a snapshot of the logs:
Then I believe you want to review the data engine folder:
If the query is not being sent from Tableau Server correctly I would reach out to Tableau Technical Support to investigate the issue.
Hope this helps!