Based on the description above it sounds like you want to restrict data being accessed, but not from within Tableau, but from within the data source itself. One way that this could be accomplished is by configuring the permissions in the data source on a per user or per group level. Then if all connections to the data source are live, when the user logs in to view the viz and logs into the data source, the data would be restricted to the permissions set.
I hope this helps!
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As Byrne mentioned you need to define row level security at data source level which gets complicated as your DB grows. They may need to sign in in the dashboard so datasouce recognize their AD credentials and show the dashboard per their security.
Here is a good article you may want to use if you decide to use Tableau.