An action filter becomes a quick filter in the destination sheet. That's how it works. And a quick filter eliminates rows.
The way to pare down displayed rows without eliminating rows from the underlying table is to use a table calc as a filter. (You cannot pass a table calc as an action filter dimension though.)
Have your action filter go to the destination sheet without passing the 10 key values for your top-10. In your destination sheet, use a table calc to display only those top 10. Something like this:
IF RANK(sum(values)) <= 10 then 1 else 0 END
Put that on your filter shelf and select for value = 1. You'll display your top-10, but the whole underlying table will still be intact, and your % of total will still behave properly.