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1. Adding a measure on the Detail marks does not affect the chart, but it affects the tooltip. It also makes them available to use in Reference lines.
2. Adding a dimension on the Detail marks is useful to breakdown the data you already have in your chart/table with this dimension too. Keep exploring and you will see the benefits of it.
1) The Detail property works only if the measures that contribute axes to the table are aggregated. If the measures are disaggregated, then it isn't possible to separate the marks into additional levels of detail because all levels of detail are already shown.
Level of detail has many uses. It can be used to add detail to your chart. For example, you could add region to the level of detail for a sales trend chart to get a line for each region without adding color. Or you could add customer to level of detail on a scatter plot to see each customer plotted.
Another use is to add data to the tool tip if you aren't changing the summary level of your chart.
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Whenever you place a dimension on the Rows or Columns shelf, Tableau uses the categorical members of the dimension to create table headers. The headers show how Tableau is sorting the underlying row data into specific categories. For example, the Segment dimension separates the data source rows into four levels of detail: Consumer, Corporate,and Home Office.
Drop a dimension on Detail on the Marks card to separate the marks in a data view according to the members of a dimension. Unlike dropping a dimension on the Rows or Columns shelf, dropping it on Detail on the Marks card is a way to show more data without changing the table structure.
Answer to Q2 using an example:
In the view below, the bars are separated into segments according to the members of the Sub-Category dimension. The size of each segment reflects the contribution to the profit for a particular member. For example, the Accessories sub-category in the Consumer market has a profit of $20,736.
You can place any number of dimensions on Detail on the Marks card. In fact, placing all dimensions on this shelf is one way to display all the rows of your data source.
Answer to Q1:
Placing a measure on Detail has no effect because measures do not contain members(in other words it is just metrics and not dimensions). However, you can place measures on this shelf if you want to export their values to Microsoft Access, copy their values to the Clipboard, or use the values in actions. Another purpose of putting a measure on the Detail will allow you to show it in the tool-tip even though you do not want to show it on the rows and columns shelf.
Hope this helps.