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If you are dealing with a organization that is concerned about putting data into the cloud, then the Tableau Online offering might not actually make sense given that it is a full hosted (read: cloud) infrastructure. While you may not need to move your data storage strategy to the cloud, there is a certain level of faith if any cloud infrastructure will touch the data in query process. As for Tableau Drive - this is a deployment best practice/rollout methodology; not really a product or even software, but more of a concept to implement Tableau Server.
Given the brief description, I would still suggest Tableau Server is the best means of implement data security with Tableau in a corporate environment behind firewall. With the new subscription pricing, its hard to argue that is expensive in comparison to Tableau Desktop pricing or Tableau Online; while you may need a set of subscriptions to enable collaboration and will need to find a server machine to install Tableau Server on, for Enterprises who are comfortable deploying on-premise solutions - hardware acquisition should not be new. I would really point out that if the organization is serious about the controls over data security and ensuring content secured is behind permissions, Tableau Server is really the mechanism that will help ensure a more central governed model. Short of having a collaboration tool like Server in place, users typically share content in unsecured packaged workbooks which create more copies of the data and less controls to prevent it from falling into wrong hands.
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For both internal server or Tableau Online you need a Tableau Server license for.
You need to know how many users would be using Tableau Server and then calculate the cost of Tableau Online versus hosting yourself.
Some companies in Australia don't use Tableau Online because the data is stored in the USA.
For a lot of users you can also look at a Core license rather than named user.
I'd suggest talking to your account rep, or reaching out to Tableau for a full explanation and analysis of what you are trying to do.
I'm just the analyst haha. I don't play a part in those higher level decisions, but I was just curious. Someone mentioned that the server machine (I'm guessing) would be really expensive. The numbers that I'm seeing on the server subscription weren't much so I'm guess that the high cost involves the setup. Thanks!!
On that note, Tableau Server is not really that demanding on a hardware requirement level. It certainly does not demand the top line hardware on the market or a massive cluster for a recommended install: Minimum Hardware Requirements and Recommendations for Tableau Server
You might take that article to discuss with someone who might be in charge of enterprise hardware or hardware procurement to discuss; usually each organization have contracts on how they buy hardware and so your own internal team would have the best idea on how much it would actually cost to procure the machine for Server to sit on.
Just to provide a baseline, people often leverage cloud infrastructure like AWS in place of buying physical hardware for Tableau: AWS Marketplace: Tableau Server (BYOL)
Depending on the type of machine you demand for your environment, the costs for a comparable cloud deployment might be around: $1095/month - $5681/month. Of course, it sounds like your organization would be reluctant to leverage cloud infrastructure; but that might be the ballpark to consider on hardware costs for similar use case. From an enterprise application standpoint, this is typically a small cost in the overall budget; you probably won't want to pay out of pocket yourself for it, but this is relatively manageable costs for a business if they can justify significant security gains or time savings.