I believe updating the underlying data metadata will require the attached workbooks to be refreshed with the new data source and published. At least every time I have modified a data source that uses an extract, I have republished the associated workbook(s) with each using the new data source. One other possible solution would be to publish a new data source and then do a replace data source for the workbooks that depend on the new fields.
I have moved this post to the Server Administration area where Tableau Server administrators often come for assistance and ask questions.
I hope that helps.
In my company we primarily use data sources which are published centrally on the server some of which are extracts and some of which are live. I often have to add further fields to them with no impact to existing workbooks that connect, so I don't believe you should have to republish every workbook that connects anytime you make a change (for example we have a published server data source that is an extract that has over 550 connected workbooks... I certainly don't want to be republishing all of those when I make a change to the data source!).
The fact your workbook isn't completely broken and works on refresh is odd and isn't something I've ever come across. It may be one that needs to be raised to Tableau Support.
Random thoughts that may help in diagnosis/support may ask
- does this happen for just one workbook or all workbooks connected to the extracted data source?
- if you republish the workbook does it all work fine (test this by adding as a new instance so you don't overwrite the broken one while you're trying to troubleshoot the issue).
- is there a difference in versions between the workbook and the data source (ie while you may be using a 10.x server, the workbook may have been published to it from a v9.x Desktop and so it will still be a v9 workbook). I'm not aware this should be a problem, but may be a factor.
- what were the explicit changes you made to the data source - you mention changing field formatting and adding fields but did you make any changes to the actual data query that serves the data source?
- what type of data source is the extract connected to - SQL Server, Excel...?
This problem was some-what resolved. First, I needed to remove a data source filter from the published datasource in order to allow the new columns to populate in my datasource. Second, I found this article where Tableau acknowledges this issue and provides the workaround: Blank Dashboard after Publishing | Tableau Software
I needed to rename and republish my newly refreshed datasource to Tableau server. Once I did this, my workbooks loaded all tables.