Have you taken a look at this Knowledge Base Article?
Error "Check that the necessary drivers are installed and that the connection properties are valid." Connecting to Cloud…
It seems like the issue you are encountering now. If we can connect using the above .tdc from Tableau Desktop, on the same computer hosting Tableau Server, then we know that the environment should allow connection for Tableau Server. We can then follow the instructions here to upload that .tdc for use by the Tableau Server application: Using a .tdc File with Tableau Server | Tableau Software
I hope this helps!