Do you have enough disk and ram? Have a look in the log.txt (C:\Users\xxx\Documents\My Tableau Repository\Logs\log.txt) for more details.
Hi Adam - I can't add much to this apart from saying that I run Tableau Desktop v10.1.1 on my Windows 10 laptop with no problems. It's a Dell XPS13 with 250GB hard drive & 8GB RAM.
Also, do you have admin rights on your workstation?