That is a tricky table to tackle! Tableau, being a data visualization tool, isn't going to be able to go ***-for-tat with Excel (nor are they at all interested in doing so!)
If you're open to visualization that data, I'd love to help!
It would be great i am able replicate somewhat similar to the above output. Please let me know what other alternative do i have.
The way you can do this is by creating separate fields for the different blocks of time, now it won't give you the visual like above, but it can give you a total for the range.
For each date range/metric you want, you need to create a time filtered calculation
Current Week - IF Datetrunc('week',today()) = datetrunc('week',[date]) then Orders end
Previous Week IF datetrunc('week',today())-7 = datetrunc('week',[date] then Orders end
MTD IF datetrunc('Month',today()) = datetrunc('month',[date]) then Orders end
Then if you sum these, it would give you the total number of Orders in that period of time.