I think it might be related to the database directly.
What version of Tableau Server are you using?
What is the data source?
Any space issue?
Ultimately, I know that refreshing the extracts in the workbook before attempting to publish works.
Lénaïc RIÉDINGER, Global Community Engineer Tableau
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This also sounds like it could be a corruption due to processes not finishing. I would try a restart of your server and if that doesn't work then contact Tableau Support:
Thank you for your response, we restarted the application which fixed the issue.
Some of our worker nodes had high memory utilization hence windows team restarted that worker node, and we didn't restart the application post restart of worker node, which caused this issue.
Now its fixed post restart of application.