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Tableau Desktop is a desktop application which you can use to visualize your data from almost any kind of data source. Once you build your visualizations, you can publish these visualizations on the Tableau Server. Publishing the visualizations can be extremely helpful when multiple users will be using these dashboards.
If you wish to become a Data Analyst, you would want to learn Tableau Desktop first. You should also have a basic understanding of what you can do with Tableau Server, in case you would need to share your wonderful dashboards with business users.
Tableau Server and Tableau Desktop have different versions. The desktop version should match the server version to be able to publish the dashboards. The latest version available for download now is 10.2
Tableau is a data visualization mainly used to gain business insights. Data Science has many aspects to it. Data visualization or exploratory data analytics is one of the key aspects of Data Science. You may choose to use visualization libraries in languages like R and Python, or use a data visualization tool like Tableau to get visual insights from the data. For example, you might be interested in understanding the correlation between two variables or understand the variance of a specific field.
Once you have these insights, you may then go on even further and use Machine Learning algorithms to predict the the future (how cool is that!! ) You can use implement some of these techniques like clustering and forecasting on Tableau itself (that is extremely powerful). However, there are limitations to what you can do using Tableau.
Let me know if my answer helped clear your queries.