How can I recognize if a calculation is already stored in the extract?
As per my understanding :
A Tableau Server published data source has the metadata about calc fields,hierarchies, colors, bins, sets, groups, etc. and the connection
information for the underlying data.Except for temp tables, Tableau does not write back to the data source.That's been a feature request for awhile now to support various data entry & comment use cases.
The calculated fields are saved in the workbooks AND are specifically associated with a given data source.
If you replace data source by another (where data structure remains the same none the less), the calculated fields are gone.
There are easier options for replacing data sources that require less labor, see Recommended practices for sharing/re-using Tableau Data Extracts (.tde's) for examples. There's also opening up the workbook XML.
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After making an extract, you can right click on the extract and select View data...
In there each column represents a dimension which was stored in the extract.
You'll see that certain dimension from your workbook are not in there. So then you know that these are non-deterministic calculations which can not be stored.