Is your question is like
You extracted the data and published it to the server. You opened your workbook/dashboard/reports and able to see the reports with the data.
Now, You extracted the data again and published it to the server. Now, you are trying to see the workbook/dashboard/reports and you are not able to see the data from your new extract.
Is that right?
Scenario 1: First time you published say with name 'AAA'. Second time you published with 'BBB'. You might be referring 'AAA' workbook.. This is not using the new extract data.
Scenario 2: Your second time extract might have failed for some reason which you might have not noticed.
You can try refreshing the data from your tableau server.
Click on workbook -> datasources -> extract refresh -> try selecting full refresh and hit ok
Please check and let me know, if it helps.
what is data source type ? . is your data source is getting updated with new set of rows or else do you have new columns also? Did you checked whther extract refresh is happening in tableau desktop or not?