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There are 3 main ways to filter data before the user has to filter it themselves:
1. Data Source filters
Configured in the Data Source tab, these filters are essentially the earliest point of filtering for your data. If you know there is data that will never be relevant in your views, this is the best place to set up a filter. Look for the "Add Filter" link in the top-right of the Data Source tab.
2. Context filters
These filters go on the Filters shelf in your view. They differ from regular filters on the Filters shelf in that they establish a context in which Fixed Level of Detail (LOD) Expressions are evaluated. If you have FIXED LOD Expressions contributing to your view, you may find that you need to configure some of your filters as Context Filters to ensure the FIXED level of detail is correct. Also, Context Filters can help govern the display of options on Quick Filters (which the user interacts with), to ensure that only relevant values are being displayed.
Context Filters appear as a grey-colored pill in the Filters shelf.
You can click most pills in the Filters shelf and select "Add to Context" to change them into a Context Filter.
3. Dimension Filters
These are the regular blue and green pills in the Filters shelf. As long as you have not enabled "Show Filter", these filters will apply to the view without the user being able to change how they are configured.
All of the above assume that your users are accessing the workbook through Tableau Server, Tableau Online, or Tableau Reader. If they open your workbook using Tableau Desktop, ALL BETS ARE OFF. At that point, they can change anything they want to about the workbook, and you cannot enforce any filters.
I hope this helps.