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Hey John -
Maybe you can give us a little bit more context? You're asking about multi-tenant architecture (which to me implies multiple-machines), but the crux of your question is focsued on the data source. If I simplify your question, you may be asking:
"Can Tableau Server do multi-tenancy with as Single Data Source".
If that's your question, the answer follows...If not, please give the gang additional requirements?
Answer: Sure. Regardless of whether your customer data is in a single database or multiple databases, you can do multi-tenancy. In both cases you'lll probably want to rely on Tableau Sites, which means you're going to re-publish your Tableau Data Source (TDS) which points at the database once-per-site. If you only have a couple tenants, you can do this manually. If you have more than a couple, you'll want to automate this using TabCmd or the REST API.
If all your customer data lives in a single data source, you'll need to implement row level security (RLS) to make sure users don't see other people's stuff. If YOUR database supports RLS, implement there. If not, Tableau has built-in RLS that essentially (and transparently / automatically) adds WHERE clauses to the SQL fired against your data source depending on who the user is. You can do this in a manual way where you use a UI to determine who can see what, or you can drive it with a lookup table. At scale, most people will use the latter approach.
Thank You. It helps