So there is no "dynamic" way we can do this in a drag (or two)...to my knowledge.
If you just want the "marks" coloured, that's really easy...you can just drag measure names to the colour tile.
To get the Axis to colour, I've set up reference lines (I've only done a couple of them)...
I right click on an Axis, and select "Add Reference Line" and set it up as per the below image (I've boxed the key parts).
If you also want to colour the Axis title and tick marks...you can do this here (right click on each axis and select format)
So a bit manual, but hope that helps.
colour chart and axis.twbx 22.9 KB
Here's a third option using Tableau's pivot feature:
This looks like survey data which typically comes in a "wide" format where there's a column per question or survey dimension. Tableau is generally easier to work with in a "tall" format. I used Tableau's pivot feature to transform the data, then set up a dual axis chart where the first axis is the Pivot Field Values (the scores) plotted using circles and a second axis is a bar chart with a value of 1 and the Size made to fill up the entire cell, then WINDOW_AVG(SUM([Pivot Field Values])) is the measure on Color with Table (down) as the compute using and a customized diverging palette with 3 set as the center.
PS: For working with survey data I heartily recommend reading Steve Wexler's work at http://www.datarevelations.com/ .
PPS: Tableau 10.2 is in beta Coming Soon and the final release is supposed to have a "Legends per Measure" feature that will let us set up this type of view without needing a pivot, though it would require configuring N legends where N is the number of questions/survey dimensions.
PLDP jtd.twbx 79.5 KB