Animated Pages are still not supported on Tableau Server, you can add your vote to this idea though here: https://community.tableau.com/ideas/1201
Based on your description I think there may be something else going on that's causing your map background to disappear, does the map background only disappear when you're using the Pages shelf?
Yes, using the same view/workbook with just the pages shelf not being used, works. I ran fiddler for both scenarios and it shows the connection being made to the map service, but not if the pages shelf is in use. Something must break before the connection attempt is made. Let's hope server support for animated pages comes soon.