Thanks for the packaged workbook! I was able to reproduce this issue in Tableau Server Version: 10.0.2 (10000.16.1004.1720) 64-bit, but the issue was NOT present in Tableau Server 10.1 Beta 2 (10100.16.0915.1805). What is the exact version of Tableau Server you are using? Please click on the in the upper right corner and take a screenshot. Also, do you recall what version you were on before where it worked successfully? I'd like to check to see if this issue has been reported already.
Thanks for that info, Ryan. I've opened a "DevHelp" to investigate this issue. Can you open a case with Tableau Technical support so that we can get some customer traction on that? Please link to this community post as it contains some valuable information. Thank you!
I sent a response for your support case today, Ryan, but wanted to post here as well for the benefit of any other users who come across this post:
This issue with quantitative color legend sizing is known to affect Tableau Server versions 10.0. through 10.0.2, and is fixed in an upcoming version of Tableau Server (10.0.3). To incorporate the fix, please upgrade to Tableau Server 10.0.3 when available. Though we cannot guarantee a release time, we do tentatively expect this version to be made available in November.
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A workaround that seems to address the display issue in the meantime is to show the title for the color legend (right click the legend > Show title).
I confirmed that this works for the sample workbook attached above and a couple other test views; it may not work for all scenarios. If turning on the title is not creating the desired post-publish result, try making the legend larger than you would prefer in Desktop, so that the legend is still visible\legible after the shrinkage behavior in Tableau Server.
Additionally, a note on the second legend in the screenshot: showing the title should fix the second legend display, but it also displays correctly if you simply extend the height of the container; the end range values are hidden because of insufficient space up and down, versus the side-to-side space issue with the third legend.