I'm not sure i understood your requirement but would be nice if you post data instead image.
Well, i'll tell what i'm thinking:
Firstly, you want to select a date and a type of period like Month, quarter, YTD based on date selection.
Second, you want to have another date selection to compare info.
This can be done using parameters.
How about you post a xls file with data and with one sheet containing what you want as deliver.
I have attached a excel file with includes the data I have (Tab data) and output I am trying to achieve with Tableau.
I know that I have to use Parameters, but I struggle to make it work dynamically... I choose December 2016 for example, and it calculates me the average prices for December 2016 for all trading dates..
Thank you very much in advance!