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To my knowledge this is not something that is built into Tableau. You can up vote the idea here: https://community.tableau.com/ideas/2209
It's a small case, but if you can fit all of the rows within the height of the dashboard (no vertical scrolling) then you can create one sheet for your fixed column and another for the scrolling data and place them side by side. I'm guessing this won't work for you depending on the amount of data you're looking at, but it is one approach.