Yes. When you publish the data source, the server's version is basically identical to the version in Desktop. Hierarchies are included and will be visible to downstream users.
Let me explain the steps what i have done and what is that i am looking for.
Created a datasource using tableau desktop and in the datasource itself created a calculated measure. I am publishing only datasource to the server. Now in the server i selected the dashboard and clicked on new workbook. In the server a new workbook opened up and in the sheet i can see the calculated measure which is created as part of datasource.
Now my query is on how to create hierarchy in the datasource from tableau desktop and publish this hierarchy along with datasource to tableau server. So that when a user wants to create a report, they can just open a new workbook from datasources and see all the hierarchy and calculated measures defined as part of datasource, then its just a matter of drag and drop to create the reports.
What version of Tableau (server) are you using? (I'm on V10)
When I prepare a datasource in Tableau Desktop i usualy create
- Folders (to order dimensions and measures)
- Calculated measures
Then I publish the datasource to Tableau server. The datasource on Tableau server has all the prepared folders, measures and hierarchies I created in Tableau Desktop. Even if other users connect to the datasource via Tableau server.
(It's the same answer as David Li)