This will be for Tableau desktop. Ideally I'd like to hide the unused filters to reduce the clutter a bit. But if all else fails, I will likely adopt a solution similar to what you suggested.
We can achieve it with the help of layout containers and dummy reports.
A, B & C are three sheets in a workbook and having A1, B1 & C1 as filters/sliders respectively. Based on sheet selection i have to display respective filter in dashboard.
1. Create three dummy sheets A2, B2 & C2. Place some toggling filter in it; means A2 should display dummy data only when sheet A is visible
2.Create a Vertical Layout and place A2 and A1
3.Create a Vertical Layout and place B2 and B1
4.Create a Vertical Layout and place C2 and C1
5. Create 3 Blank Text components with background color as the same report background color and have same size of A2 or B2 or C2 reports (when it is having data)
6. Place Blank Text components on A2, B2, C2 respectively
Now based on your sheet selection in dashboard data in A2 or B2 or C2 populates; at it is in vertical layout it pushes respective A1 or B1 or C1 filter/slider to bottom of the layout. Blank Text component helps to hide the dummy sheets (A2/B2/C2)
Hope this resolves your issue.