I suspect the Year filter is a factor in this. If you also upload your workbook in twbx format these problems are usually simple to fix. As your workbook isn't uploaded I'll take a stab in the dark. Try adding your top 10 filter to context and see if that works. If it doesn't remove it from context and add the Year filter to context instead.
If that also doesn't work use an INDEX() calculated field to do the Top 10 - I can point you in the right direction if you need more info on that method.
Thanks for the help Andrew!
Moving the Top 10 filter to context did not work, but moving the Year filter to context did work.
Can you please explain why it works? I'm not even really sure what a context is to be honest.
To help answer that question is that quick filters work independently of each other and query ALL records in the data source, so the Top N applies to the entire set. When filters are set to context, all other filters will only query the resulting subset of records returned from those filters set in context.
It's all about order of operation: Tableau's Order of Operations
It was initially calculating the top 10 across the entire dataset and then applying the year filter. You want this the other way around - apply the year filter then calculate the top 10. Adding the Year to context changed the order of operations so the Top 10 calc happened after the year filter was applied.