Someone on Stackoverflow provided a potential solution but I just asked him for a more detailed walkthrough as it is a bit obscure to me. If anyone here knows what he's talking about and can give a detailed walkthrough, I would appreciate it.
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From a couple of other conversations and some reading, I think that solution in Stackoverflow by Matt1 refers to someone making their own program/project use the Tableau API. This is why they can use the Authentication processes (scopes?) for both BigQuery and Google Drive. It appears that as of now, Tableau Desktop only authenticates with BigQuery, which is why there are no credentials for Google Drive and Google Sheets when we try these newer federated tables.
We need to wait for Tableau itself to update their Desktop program so that it will also authenticate with Google Drive before this will work out-of-the-box for us. I'm hoping that it's not a very complex change, and that there's enough value in adding it for those of us using BigQuery, Drive, and Sheets.