You can create a parameter with those 3 values and then create a calculated variable to use as a filter. The formula for the calculated field would be something like:
IF [Parameter] = "Life to Date" THEN "Show"
ELSEIF [Parameter] = "Trailing 3 Years" THEN
IF [Number of Months] <= 36 THEN "Show" END
ELSEIF [Parameter] = "Trailing 12 months" THEN
IF [Number of Months] <= 12 THEN "Show" END
Dragging that calculated field onto filters you can filter to only show the record when the value is "Show". Without seeing the data though, I'm not sure if this will be the best solution or not. If you have some sample data you could share in a packaged workbook it would be helpful if this doesn't work.
Hope this helps
Assuming, you already have 3 calc fields: "Trailing 12 months", "Trailing 3 Years", and "Life to Date"
Create a String Parameter with Values
"Trailing 12 months"
"Trailing 3 Years"
"Life to Date"
Now, create a calculated field using the parameter:
when "Trailing 12 months" then [Trailing 12 months]
when "Trailing 3 Years" then [Trailing 3 Years]
when "Life to Date" then [Life to Date] end
now use this calc field in your view.